I work primarily at the intersection of philosophy of mind and social philosophy. I am interested in thinking about belief with the goal of understanding and regulating pervasive forms of bad believing which shape the social world. On the one hand, considering phenomena under the purview of social philosophy – like bias, ideology and standpoints - is crucial to really understanding belief and minds more generally. On the other hand, a better understanding of belief and how it differs from other aspects of our minds can do valuable work in social philosophy, explaining the effectiveness of political strategies which focus on changing the environment and not on argumentative persuasion in the first instance, and suggesting additional ways of shaping up minds and the social world they help constitute.

I once wrote a post for the Daily Ant on how folk psychology has social coordination as its primary function, “Propositional Anttitudes and Social Coordination.”

Other topics I have spent some time thinking about include: interpretationism about mental content; delusions and self-deception; norm internalization, self-regulation and social identity; cognitive architecture as a conceptual engineering project; frames, perspectives, and the role of attention in structuring thought; and virtues and vices of conversation.

Papers in progress

E-mail me for drafts at Comments welcome!

Belief-keeping in an epistemic game

Abstract: What are beliefs? The traditional conception of belief as an attitude that is closely tied to rational inquiry is under pressure given that we in fact believe in pervasively irrational ways. I develop an account of belief that does justice to the role which beliefs play in epistemic interaction without limiting beliefs to highly rational epistemic agents. To do so, I employ a capacities-first approach: belief requires the capacity for evidence sensitivity. I argue that we must accept such a necessary condition on belief to make sense of our practices of trying to change each other’s minds by appeal to evidence and argument. At the same time, because the relevant capacities are fallible and may be masked by other (internal and external) factors, this account allows for beliefs to be routinely formed and held in epistemically sub-par ways. Further, these capacities come in degrees of sophistication, which both allows non-linguistic and cognitively less sophisticated agents to have beliefs and yields an attractive naturalistic picture in which beliefs gradually emerge from a ground of simpler capacities to respond to one’s environment.

lies, narcissism, and vice

Abstract: The belief condition on lying – one must believe that p is false to lie in saying that p – is almost universally endorsed. In addition, orthodoxy has it that lying requires one to believe not-p, or to not believe that p. I argue that we should reject all of these claims because (1) beliefs can and do often come apart from one’s best take on the world, and (2) whether one lies is determined by the latter and not the former. To this effect, I deploy variations of Lackey’s (2007) selfless assertions (cases I call narcissistic assertions) as counterexamples to necessary conditions on lying that go through the asserter’s first-order beliefs about the world.

I then suggest, as a replacement for such conditions, that lying requires asserting against one’s best take on the world. I consider several alternatives for spelling out how one’s best take on the world is cognitively implemented, and show that, in addition to handling paradigm cases of lying, this alternative can handle a wide range of under-explored cases: cases of unreflective or habitual lying, of narcissistic assertion, and of higher-order narcissistic assertion.


Talks marked with a “*” are ones selected based on blind review of abstracts/papers.

Belief-Keeping in an epistemic game

Lies, Narcissism, and Vice

  • NYU-Columbia Graduate Conference. New York, April 2018. *

  • •4th IIFs-UNAM Philosophy Graduate Conference. Mexico City, March 2018. *

Spinoza’s Account of Self-Knowledge

  • Philosophy of Mind in Early Modern Philosophy. Princeton University, April 2018. *

  • American Philosophical Association Central Division Meeting (Colloquium). Chicago, February 2018. *

  • Annual Meeting of the Canadian Philosophical Association (Colloquium). Toronto, May 2017. *

Intelligibility, Beliefs, and Delusions

  • CUNY-Milan Annual Interdisciplinary Workshop on Belief. New York, February 2018.*

  • The Human Mind Conference (Poster Session). Cambridge (UK), June 2017.*

  • Mind Research Group. Rutgers New Brunswick, April 2017.


  • Comments on Panel “Why ‘Structural Racism’ Matters: Social Philosophy and Epistemology” (César Cabezas, Eric Bayruns Garcia, Annette Martin), 3rd Latinx Philosophy Conference, Rutgers New Brunswick, April 2018.

  • Graduate Student Commentator-at-Large, PeRFECt 3 (Penn Reasons and Foundations in Epistemology Conference). University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. November 2017. *